The news about a new drug that cured the cancer of all the patients who participated in the treatment had attracted attention in the last few days. This is something that rarely happens when trying new drugs. Especially for a disease that causes fears like cancer. That is why this research is so newsworthy.
Colorectal Cancers – Treatment and Hope
Colorectal cancer is one of the most common cancers affecting humans. It is usually treated in two or three stages. For early-stage cancers, surgery is first performed to remove the cancerous rectum. The location of the cancer in the rectum determines what the rest of the bowel should do. If the cancer is far from the rectum, the patient may be able to reunite after the incision is made and lead a completely normal life. However, if the cancer is close to the rectum, the rectum should be removed and the patient should live with a colostomy (a plastic bag that is inserted into the abdomen and a plastic bag to collect the stool). After this surgery, chemotherapy may be needed to destroy the cancer cells that may be left in the body.
If the cancer is a little more advanced, surgery may not be able to remove the cancer completely. In such cases a chemo-radiotherapy treatment is first performed to reduce the size of the cancer. Once the cancer is reduced in size, it can be easily removed by surgery.
Today, colorectal cancer has such a complex, massive treatment plan that it can take months or even years. The good news is that early detection can increase the risk of colon cancer by up to 90 percent. However, it would be a great blessing to the patients if this treatment, which is long lasting and distressing, could be made easier. The way to it is now open.
The study was performed in patients with cancer that has spread to the rectum but has not spread to other organs. The new drug is being tested on rectal cancers for genetic predisposition to “generic miscarriage”. It is estimated that about 5 to 10 percent of colon cancers have these types of changes, which can be described as ‘mismatch repair deficient’. Our body has a system to repair these. When this mechanism does not work, many genetic mutations can accumulate in these cells (MMrD cells). It can cause cancer. This group, which accounts for 5-10% of colorectal cancers, generally does not respond well to conservative chemotherapy drugs. The experiments that led to this note begin with the assumption that drugs in the PD1 (programmed death 1) inhibitor class may be useful in such cancers.
ക് Monoclonal antibodies – A little history
The words antigen and antibody are familiar to everyone who follows science in general. The body fights back the pathogenic bacteria that enter the body by creating antibodies against them. These antibodies are able to accurately detect and eliminate only the bacteria because they are able to directly capture the antigens that are located above the bacteria. One thing is clear to the scientists who have been researching the molecular genetics of cancer cells. Cancer cells are more susceptible to certain antigens that are not present in normal cells. Developing an antibody against these antigens could possibly create a miracle drug that only kills cancer cells. This concept was first implemented by a company called Genantech in the last quarter of the twentieth century. It is a drug called Rituximab.
Leukemia, also known as non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma, was a difficult disease to treat. Although conventional chemotherapy drugs were available, they had fewer side effects and less effectiveness. It is in this context that these cancer cells are found to exhibit the antigen CD20. Can cancer be effectively controlled by developing an antibody against this antigen? The researchers were able to isolate such an antibody from mice. But how can an antibody extracted from a rat be injected into a human? The body does not absorb any proteins that the body does not own. It can also cause serious allergies. Researchers have found a way to do this too. CD in detected antibody. 20 Go to the antigen and replace all the parts except the sticky part and place the parts of the human antibody. For researchers to synthesize an antibody similar to that found in the human body. The drug was first tested in monkeys. Experiments have shown that this drug can effectively reduce the number of bee lymphocytes in the blood, thereby effectively controlling non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma. Phase II and Phase II experiments were then performed on humans, and in 1998 the FDA, the American drug regulatory body. The drug Rituximab was marketed with the approval of. Until recently, the drug had to pay a high price under patent law, but since its patent expired in 2016, the price of the drug has dropped significantly. Indian companies have been manufacturing and selling similar drugs since 2017.
Researchers have been successful in developing many of these drugs since the discovery of rituximab. Many monoclonal antibodies have been marketed today under strange names, such as herceptin for breast cancer, bevacizumab for the treatment of colorectal cancer and kidney cancer. (These names are not as they seem. There are obvious reasons for putting the beginning part of the name and the last part Sumab, Mumab and Imab. It is not explained as it is outside the scope of this article)
Dostarlimab, a monoclonal antibody, has been used to treat colorectal cancer. The drug was given as an injection every three weeks for six months. The doctors who planned the study calculated that if there was no positive response after that, they could move on to other treatments such as surgery. Thus 12 patients were given injections for 6 months. They were then monitored for another six months. Surprisingly, all 12 were later diagnosed with cancer and no signs of cancer. None of them later underwent surgery or radiation.
The general principle of chemotherapy that we are familiar with in the treatment of cancer is to destroy the rapidly growing cells in the body, such as cancer cells. Immunotherapy aims to help the body’s immune system do its job of identifying and fighting cancer cells. Thereby attacking and destroying them. In practice, the ultimate goal of immunotherapy is to create a group of T cells that are specifically targeted at cancer.
Immunotherapy is approved to treat certain types of cancer, including melanoma, lymphoma, and lung cancer. Many other types of immunotherapy are being tried in clinical trials.
There is no doubt that this is a very promising experiment in the field of cancer treatment. The propaganda that cancer has become a permanent cure for all cancers is also incorrect. This is a study of cancer that occurs in a specific part of the body, in a subgroup that has many unique features in it. A similar study was conducted in a very small number of patients over a period of time. This is a good prospect in the treatment of cancer. There are still many such studies to be done. These drugs have the potential to change the future of cancer treatment. Although the unaffordable cost discourages third world countries like ours from using such drugs, their patents expire soon and we will be able to manufacture and market them in our own country at minimal cost. As these drugs become more effective against each type of cancer, the need for cancer surgery may be reduced or eliminated altogether. Cancer can also become a disease that can be completely prevented with medication or vaccination. Science may thus find the answer to the great challenge that cancer, the disease of the aging population, is going to pose in the future.
Content Summary: Cancer research and medicine trial